Citation

CITATION EXERCISE

INDIRECT SOURCES

This is what Purdue’s OWL has to say about using “indirect sources” . . .

In MLA

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use “qtd. in” to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:

Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as “social service centers, and they don’t do that well” (qtd. in Weisman 259).

Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.

And in APA . . .

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

HOW TO INCORPORATE SOURCES

FORMATTING

  • MLA Formatting Guide:  OWL at Purdue
    • Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009
      • For every entry, you must determine the Medium of Publication. Most entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources, but other possibilities may include Film, CD-ROM, or DVD.
      • Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries. However, if your instructor or publisher insists on them, include them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period. For long URLs, break lines only at slashes.
      • If you’re citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database, you should type the online database name in italics. You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name.
      • From OWL at Purdue  Works Cited

SCIENTIFIC CITATION | NUMBERED CITATION-SEQUENCE DOCUMENTATION

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